Vladimir Propp suggest that there are several "spheres of action" or narrative functions.
Each narrative function serves a purpose to the plot, each is as followed:
The villain: this character creates a narrative complication or the disruption to the equilibrium.
The donor: This character type give the hero something in order aid in the reinvestment of the equilibrium.
The helper: this character aids the hero in the task of reinstatement of the equilibrium.
The princess or damsel in distress: this is usually the most threatened character, and is often in need of rescue by the villain, they are often given as a reward by the rewarder (The king).
The dispatcher: this is the character that sends the hero on there mission.
The hero: this is the main protagonist of the story, quested with the task of restoring an equilibrium by defeating the villain,
Propp also suggested there are two types of hero
Victim hero: who is the main centre of the villains attention
and the seeker hero who aid the hero only to become a victim of the villains actions
false hero: this is a character that is suggested to be good throughout the narrative but towards the climax betrays the hero
the last character type is the rewarder: this character presents the hero with some kind of reward for completing the quest and reinstating the equilibrium.